Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)


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Seat Scienze
A.A. 2016/2017
Credits 6
Hours 48
Period 2^ semestre
Language ENG
U-gov code SM03 5S359



Development of the course

Theoretical lectures are planned (6 credits, 48 hours) and practical exercises carried out individually or in small groups. At the frontal course is flanked educational activity containing, among other things: teaching materials, use of precompiled cards, use of video - audio, self-evaluation tests, elaboration of emergency plans virtual prehospital and hospital, to class attendance and tutorials practices, results of examinations.

Learning outcomes

The course enables students to acquire the basic knowledge on Disaster Medicine, medical specialty that studies such as attitudes to assume in connection with an exceptional event, which, although of a different nature, is always characterized by a clear disproportion between the demands of the environment and response capacity of health relief. This is done through the theoretical and methodological study of the main techniques of analysis of the assessment and measurement of risk of a territory, the management of health resources, the role of operational center of 118, of the importance of medical aid chain and the various roles. Simultaneously provides students with the knowledge on the health care organization in the great mass gatherings, pitched on the characteristics of the health facilities, the triage and major incident personal health record, the hospital role in major incidents particularly on PEIMAF, PEI, PEVAC. Special attention will be placed also on the toxicological emergencies, and on international medical emergencies on the health aspects in mass casualties in developing countries  and finally on the psychological aspects in the disaster. The course thus aims to introduce the basic principles of health management of relief operations in disaster situations, applying the methodology developed by the international scientific community. The individual medical emergency protocols are revised depending on the complexity of the logistics and management of major incident scenarios and provides a framework that allows to develop planning skills, sustainable welfare procedures and a rational approach to the management of emergency complex medical scenarios.

Ability to apply the knowledge:
The student must acquire the ability to carry out the analysis of the health risks of a virtual territory, with the elaboration of a pre-hospital health emergency plan and will be able to fill out major incident personal health record using the START triage. It must also develop a plan PEIMAF (internal emergency plan for the surge of  wounded) of a virtual hospital.

Soft skills:
The performance analysis of the health risks of an individual and group territory, as well as the drafting of health care pre-hospital and hospital emergency plans, help to improve both the degree of independence of judgment in general, both the communication skills that comes also work in groups, both the learning capacity and autonomy to draw conclusions, integrating the student with the other components of the emergency system involved in a disaster scenario (Fire brigade, Public Order Forces, Civil Defence, Volunteer).


Content (lectures, 6 CFU, 42 hours + 6 hours of tutorial):
Introduction to Disaster Medicine: Epidemiology and classification of disasters: natural, technological and social. geographical distribution of the different types of disaster. impact on health, psychological and social in the population.
Evaluation and calculation of risk: risk recognition, risk calculation methods, FEMA model, Scenario FEMA model.
Role of the operations center 118: Current regulations, structural features and equipment that is attached to the helpline 118. Preparation of an emergency plan prehospital, tasks of the Operational Centre 118 in case of major accident.
Chain of survival and roles: Mitigation and elimination of the damage, phase of spontaneity, organizational phase, operational phase, health roles: Director of Relief Health (DSS), Director of Recovery Teams (DSR), Director of Transport (DTR), Director of the AMP (DPMA), the AMP Teams Healthcare, Recovery Teams.
Emergency Medical Module: Advanced Medical Post, PMA I, II, III level, Field  Hospital, structural and functional characteristics, organization of materials, AMP, AMPS, LFH, Type 1, Type2, Type 3 (WHO), Role 1, Role2, Role 3 Role 4 (NATO).
Prehospital triage: Definition, directions, objectives and essential requirements of the Triage, types of triage in mass casualties (START and SMART), clinical simulations, personal health record in mass casualities (SSM).
Treatment within mass casualties: Definition, directions, goals of treatment within mass casualties, clinical simulations, ABCDE management in the territory.
Healthcare to mass gatherings: organization of health relief, Model of Arbon, the Maurer algorithm.
Hospital's role in major incident: Emergency System Urgency, analysis and calculation of risks, calculation of resources (space, materials, technologies, staff), event design, resource management in the hospital, activation of PEIMAF, PEI, PEVAC.
Chain of command in PEIMAF: responsibilities, tasks and characteristics of the hospital staff, the Directorate of mass casualties, Presidium of mass casualties, Crisis Unit, Director of Relief Health Hospital (DSSH), roles and functions in the phases of prevention, activation and preparation of the plan.
Functional areas and health treatments in PEIMAF: triage areas, code red, yellow and green, headquarters and structural characteristics, functions and general treatments, fit and function of the areas, routes and destination of the victims, functions and relationships of the areas Director .
Health issues in emergency toxicology: Chain of health relief, management of patients poisoned by chemicals, identification of the substance and toxicological syndromes, primary and secondary decontamination, territorial hospital and health intervention.
Health aspects in international mass casualties: food and nutrition, water and sanitation, communicable diseases.
Psychology of disasters: the stressors and psychological risk to the victims and rescue workers, physical and behavioral reactions reactions, psychosocial teams for emergencies.
Field exercises (6 hours): There are two management simulations and organization of mass casualties on 3 hours each on the field.

Development of the examination

Methods for assessing learning outcomes:
The exam consists of a written test with 27 multiple-choice questions to be performed in 30 minutes. These include all of the topics covered during the course. Each question is given a score ranging from -3 to +4 depending on the degree of complexity of the application. Passing the exam it is bound to the acquisition, in the computation of the score, to a level at least equal to 65% of those questions considered essential to the knowledge of the course. The exam is passed when the final grade is greater than or equal to 18. In the event of loss or dissatisfaction of the vote, the examination can be repeated no earlier than one month to two additional attempts, taking into account that the level of difficulty of the questions will be more complex with each successive attempt. From the fourth attempt the exam you can play in single oral mode. This is to inform that you will not know the exact answer and / or errors made in the written test since some questions might be proposed again.

Criteria for assessing learning outcomes: 
In the written test, the student must demonstrate knowledge of the principles and methodology of health care management in a disaster situation, and to have acquired basic knowledge of the main roles of the chain of command and control at both the prehospital level hospital.

Criteria for measuring learning outcomes:
The final mark is awarded out of thirty. The exam is passed when the grade is greater than or equal to 18. It is expected to be awarded the highest marks with honors (30 cum laude).

Criteria for conferring final mark:
The final vote is given by calculating the result of each response to the 27 questions in the test. The vote cum laude is given only when the student responds exactly to all the test questions or when the student has demonstrated full mastery of the subject to the oral examination.

Recommended reading

The teacher text (handed over by the teacher during ongoing)
For those who do not attend lessons text you can be requested by writing to the following address: caroli.mario@tiscali.it

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