Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
Knowledge of the topics of the courses on mathematic, physic, general inorganic, organic and instrumental analytical chemistry.
The course consists of theoretical lectures (5 credits, 40 hours) and laboratory practical work carried out individually or at small groups and fieldwork (1 credit, 8 hours). During the course the teacher organizes some seminars on actual environmental topic, taken by an expert of the field (ARPA manager).
The course enables students to acquire the fundamental knowledge of the principal techniques of environmental monitoring according to regulations in force in the different matrices air (particulate matter, deposit, and emission), water (marine and coastal water, lake and fluvial water, underground water) sediments and soil. Besides the course provides the knowledge on environmental biomonitoring and on the main instrumental techniques for the analysis of the matrices studied.
Ability to apply the knowledge:
The student should also acquire the following professional skills: ability to project an environmental monitoring of air, water and soil, ability to carry out samples collection and analyses, ability to value the analytical data obtained according to law limits, provided by national and international institutions.
Soft skills: The planning of an environmental monitoring and related activities contribute to improve for the student the degree of judgement autonomy in general, because the student will learn the capability to value the data obtained in line with the corresponding limits law, encouraging a discussion above. The communicative capacity will be stimulated during the lessons by discussing with the teacher some scientific report or papers (even in English language) on environmental monitoring of air, water and soil in sites with a different antrophic impact: these capabilities will be encouraged by attendance to some seminar on environmental topic, carried out by manager of the sector. The execution of field and laboratory analyses contributes to improve for the student the degree of judgement autonomy in general, the communicative capacity (which derives also from the teamwork), the learning capacity in autonomy, and the ability to draw conclusions from experimental data.
Content (lectures, 5 CFU, 40 hours).
Environmental monitoring: general aspects and regulations in force. Monitoring phases: identification of regulation in force and bibliography; choice of environmental components and indicators; selection of monitoring area and sites; planning of monitoring activities; environmental monitoring activity; results analysis. Quality of analytical data: accuracy and precision, repeatability and reproducibility, detection limit, validation of analytical data (law limits and statistical tests).
Air monitoring: general aspects and regulations in force (EU, national and local). Particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5). Pollutants to monitor and relative sampling methods (CO, SO2, NO2,O3…).Identification of monitoring area (urban, rural,…) and of potential contamination source. Particulate matter sampling (gravimetric and optical samplers). Atmospheric deposition sampling (wet and dry samplers, throughfall stemflow, runoff). Passive sampling of the air (passive samplers, Radiello samplers). Air emission sampling (Pitot tubes, isokinetic sampling). Detectors of gas polluting. Air biomonitoring (mosses, lichens, aeroplancton and other organisms).
Water monitoring (fresh, marine and coastal, lakes and rivers): general aspects and regulations in force (WFD, Marine Strategy). Physical and chemical characteristics of water and identification of dangerous and priority pollutants and other substances to reveal for evaluating chemical state of water. Water sampling: regularity and site sampling, sampling systems. Sample treatment and storage. Groundwater: sampling (by piezometers) and analysis of principal organic and inorganic pollutants
Sediments: sampling and chemical-physical analysis. Water biomonitoring: toxicity tests for biomolecular and physiological organisms response to experimental situations; monitoring of ecosystem exposed to environmental stress.
Soil monitoring: general aspects and regulations in force. Geo-physical survey and measure of principal parameters. Diffuse soil contamination or contaminated sites. Types of sampling for soil and analyses of principal pollutants. Official methods of chemical analysis of soil. Gas in the soil: sampling and analysis. VOC analysis in soil: head space technique. Monitoring of interstitial water in the soil. Soil biomonitoring using ecotoxicological and biological indicators.
Principal extraction methods (MAE, LLE, SPE) and analysis (GC, HPLC, ICP-MS, AAS) for environmental monitoring.
Laboratory exercises (1 credits, 8 hourst). Determination of the phosphates in water, determination of soil humidity, measurements of pH and conductivity of soil samples.
Field work (two one-day school trips). Two one-day school trips are expected to be carried out dedicated to field activity: sampling of snow with analyses on site (pH, conductivity, chloride, fluoride, iodide, nitrate), and visit to water treatment plant.
Methods for assessing learning outcomes:
The examination is an oral exam: during the examination the teacher evaluates the student learning.
Criteria for assessing learning outcomes:
During the oral examination the student will be demonstrate to know:
- at least two topics of the whole programme of environmental monitoring,
- at least two topics of the whole programme of environmental legislation.
Criteria for measuring learning outcomes:
The final mark is attributed in thirtieths. Successful completion of the examination will lead to grades ranging from 18 to 30, and 30 with laud.
Criteria for conferring final mark:
The final mark is attributed by evaluating the learning of the student on the contents of the course and by evaluating the complete mastery of the matter.
- Copy of slides available
- R. Cozzi, P. Protti, T. Ruaro, Elementi di analisi chimica strumentale, Analisi chimica dei materiali, Analisi chimica ambientale, Zanichelli, Bologna, second edition 2013.
- APAT, Metodi analitici per le acque, manuali e linee guida 29/2003, APAT., 2003.