Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
Cognitive prerequisites concerning geology (lithology, stratigraphy, petrography), geophysics and geodynamics, basic concepts of topography, cartography and geodesy, as well as basic notions on geo-technologies (GIS, GPS, vector cartography, etc.) are essential to territorial analysis.
The course of geological and geomorphological survey techniques is delivered by means of class teaching and field mapping laboratory.
The course aims to provide students with the knowledge of basic methodologies for field surveying, mapping and collection of spatial data. The territorial analysis (geology and geomorphology) is an indispensable element of any investigation whose objective is provision of civil protection, support to commercial ventures, whether these are relating to engineering, construction or prospecting raw materials and hydrocarbons.
The course enables students to acquire the basic knowledge on the analysis of geological phenomena from the observation of the landscape. Since surveying techniques and mapping are activities peculiar to geologic and geomorphologic surveyors, having specific training and background, the course herewith offered is necessarily limited to learning rudiments of field practices and territorial analysis.
Ability to apply the knowledge:
Students acquire the capacity to map simple geological features and to deduct their meaning from simple cartographic representation, so as to deduce quantitative elements through the stratimetric analysis.
List of content (classroom lectures, 5 CFU, 40 hours):
General part: stratigraphy and tectonics
- Introduction to the course; purpose and importance of geological surveying and mapping.
- Types of geological surveys, according to scope and purpose.
- Basic geologic maps and thematic maps.
- Concepts of lithostratigraphy: description, classification and recognition of rock formations on the basis of lithology, geometry, lateral variations and continuity.
- Principles of lithostratigraphy as the base of geological surveying.
- Facies and their definition: facies analysis and its use in cartography.
- Fundamental stratigraphic units and their use.
- Stratigraphic correlations.
- Surfaces of stratigraphic discontinuities.
- Elements of descriptive tectonics.
- Mappable geological surfaces: bedding, cleavage.
- Mappable geological structures: folds elements and faults planes.
-Elements of Geomorphology
Methods of geological surveying and mapping.
- Tools for geological survey and their use.
- Planning a geological survey
- Usefulness of remote-sensing imagery in geological survey.
- Mapping of geological surfaces
- Choice of suitable trace for geological-section, execution of geological sections from geologic maps
- Introduction to stratimetry.
- Methods of measuring thickness of formations in the field.
- Stratigraphic correlations in the field.
- Organization and equipment for geological surveying.
- Methods of graphic representation
- Executing simple stratigraphic sections with the assistance of meter stick and Jacob’s staff.
- Recognition, measurement and positioning of primary geologic features on maps.
Interpreting geological maps and sections
- Geological maps, geomorphological maps, geological sections, their reading and interpretation
- Significance of geological maps interpretation.
- Detecting and recording information for specific surveys.
Field tutorials (1CFU 10 hours)
Practical group exercises of geological mapping on a scale of 1:25,000 to 1:10,000 and development of a simple geological map of an assigned area.
Methods for assessing learning outcomes:
The assessment of proficiency is performed through a written stratimetry test followed by a discussion on all program's topics. The field practice exercise is complemented by the compilation of a technical report, which, if ranked positive, is considered in the definition of the final grade.
Criteria for assessing learning outcomes:
The student should demonstrate the understanding of general concepts of geology, geomorphology, cartography and stratimetry.
Criteria for measuring learning outcomes:
The final grade is assigned in points, up to a maximum of 30. The exam is passed when the grade is greater than or equal to 18. In case of outstanding performance, the highest marks with honours (30 cum laude) are awarded.
Criteria for conferring final mark:
The final grade is awarded on the basis of the marks obtained in the oral test. Honours are granted whenever the student proves originality in the exposure and mastery of the subject matter.
E. Coe Ed. (2010) – Geological Field Techniques. Wiley-Blackwell Ed.
B.C.M. Butler & J.D. Bell (1991) – Lettura ed interpretazione delle carte geologiche. Zanichelli.
G. Cremonini (1995) – Rilevamento Geologico. Realizzazione ed interpretazione delle carte geologiche. Pitagora Ed. (fuori commercio)
A.V. Damiani (1984) – Geologia sul terreno e Rilevamento geologico. Zanichelli Ed. (fuori commercio)
Bell, F.G. (2001), Geologia ambientale, Zanichelli Editore, Bologna
B. Simpson (1992) – Lettura delle carte geologiche – Flaccovio Ed.
C.Venturini 2012 Realizzare e Leggere carte e sezioni Geologiche. Flaccovio Editore