Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
Fundamentals General, Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry.
The course includes theoretical lectures (4 credits, 32 hours) and laboratory practical work carried out individually or in small groups (2 credits, 16 hours). Teaching materials, numerical exercises, instructions for laboratory exercises will be provided in e-learning modality.
The course aims to introduce students to the problems encountered in the design and delivery of bioactive molecules. By studying general and specific examples, focus will be placed on the structural changes that allow to design and optimize a bioactive molecule. The course also enables students to acquire basic knowledge on the theoretical and methodological foundations of the main spectroscopic techniques (in particular NMR and IR) and their applications in the field of structure determination of bioactive molecules.
Ability to apply the knowledge:
The exercises carried out in the classroom and in the laboratory will allow the student to acquire the ability to connect the structural features of a molecule with its chemical and physical properties and later with the biopharmaceutical properties of a potential active ingredient.
The execution of laboratory experiments and subsequent reporting on the experiments performed, will enhance the ability to collect and interpret experimental data, to draw conclusions and to know how to deliver them.
Target identification. Serendipitous discoveries, Rational approaches, Me too research, Optimization of drug side effects, Combinatorial chemistry, Virtual screening.
Biopharmaceutical properties of drugs. Physicochemical parameters and drug absorption: solubility, ionization and pH, lipophilicity, hydrogen bond, electronic properties.
Structure and pharmacological activity. Optic and geometric isomerism, conformational isomerism, isosterism and pharmacological activity. Target identification methods.
Drug delivery systems.
Characterization of bioactive molecules. Infrared Spectroscopy. Identification of IR spectra of organic compounds. Biological applications of Microimaging FT-IR technique. 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Analysis of 1H NMR spectra of organic compounds.
Laboratory experiments on topics covered in class.
Methods for assessing learning outcomes:
The assessment method is an oral examination during which the student could be asked to solve exercises similar to those performed with the teacher during the lectures. The exam can be taken after the evaluation of a written report on the laboratory experiences. The exam is passed when the final grade is greater than or equal to 18.
Criteria for assessing learning outcomes:
The student will have to demonstrate the ability to rationalize the behavior of an ionizable bioactive molecule as a function of pH as well as to have acquired the basic knowledge of the main structural changes that can be introduced in a molecule to improve its pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. He will have to demonstrate the acquisition of a sound knowledge of basics of NMR and IR spectroscopic techniques and also to be able to interpret simple NMR and IR spectra. In the laboratory reports the student will have to demonstrate the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to the execution of simple laboratory experiments, to collect the experimental data and discuss them critically.
Criteria for measuring learning outcomes:
The final mark is conferred in thirtieths. Successful completion of the examination will lead to grades ranging from 18 to 30, and 30 with laud.
Criteria for conferring final mark:
The final mark is conferred by adding to the evaluation of the oral examination that of the laboratory report, the latter up to 6 points. During the oral examination the student could be asked on three topics , each of which will get a maximum of 9 points. The laud is attributed when the score obtained by the previous sum exceeds the value of 30 and contemporaneously the student demonstrates complete mastery of the matter.
Edited by F.D.King, Medicinal Chemistry. Principles and Practice, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2002.
Richard B. Silverman, The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, Academic Press, 1992.
Foye, Lemke, Williams, Principi di Chimica Farmaceutica, PICCIN, Padova, 1998.
Chiappe D’andrea – TECNICHE SPETTROSCOPICHE E IDENTIFICAZIONE DI COMPOSTI ORGANICI – Edizioni ETS