Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
Basic knowledge of chemistry, physics, cell and tissue biology acquired at high school.
The lectures are planned (7 CFU) as well as laboratory practices (1 CFU).
The course aims to provide a complete and updated knowledge of cytology and histology. The student will acquire detailed knowledge of the various morphological and functional components of the cell, the mechanisms that regulate their proper functioning, the cell cycle, the various types of division, and the differences between the various animal tissues, with particular reference to those of human. Some topics presented in class will be examined in a series of laboratory practical exercises during which students can test their knowledge.
Ability to apply the knowledge:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:
Apply knowledge about the various subcellular structures to specific functional processes in an integrated and comprehensive view;
Apply theoretical and operational skills with reference to the morphological/functional aspects of the single cell and the biological tissues.
Through laboratory practices students will acquire autonomy in judgment as well as communication skills also arising from work in groups.
Cytology: General properties of living organisms; the level of organization of living organisms : virus, prokaryotes, eukaryotes; chemistry of the cells; cellular membranes; plasma membrane and its function; differentiations of the cell surface (microvilli, cilia and flagella, cell junctions); cytoskeleton; ribosomes and protein synthesis; smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus and exocytosis; lysosomes and endocytosis; mitochondrion and energetic cycle; chloroplast and photosynthesis, nuclear envelope and nucleo-cytoplasmic exchanges; chromatin (euchromatin and heterochromatin) structure and composition; nucleoskeleton; metaphasic chromosomes; diploid and aploid chromosome set; RNA transcription; DNA duplication; mitosis; meiosis.
Histology: Tissue concept and generalities. Epithelial tissue (the lining and glandular); tissues of mesenchymal origin (cells and fundamental substance; connectives; cartilage; bone, blood, hematopoiesis and immunity) smooth, striated skeletal, and cardiac muscle tissue; nervous tissue and neuroglia. Laboratory practices include: observation by light microscopy of human blood smear, observation by light microscopy of metaphase chromosomes and preparation of a karyogram, the study by light microscopy of histological tissues described during the lectures.
Methods for assessing learning outcomes:
The student will be evaluated with an oral exam that will be able to sustain only after passing a written test. This test will take place at the computer room and includes twenty multiple choice questions. If the test will be passed the student will access to the oral exam. Registration for the exam will be achieved through the own reserved area. The deadline for registration, indicated for each exam, is established several days before the oral exam in order to arrange for the written test and publish the list of students who passed it. The list of groups and the results of the written exam will be available on Moodle of Science by consulting Cytology and Histology M-Z.
Criteria for assessing learning outcomes:
The oral examination is aimed at assessing the knowledge and understanding of the topics needed to resolve problems related to course objectives.
Criteria for measuring learning outcomes:
The final mark is assigned exclusively on the oral exam in which the knowledge will be tested through questions at low, medium, and high difficulty.
Criteria for conferring final mark:
The final mark is assigned on the basis of the student's ability to provide answers that demonstrate mastery of the subject with clarity and with a relevant technical and scientific terminology. It will also evaluate the student's ability to link together the topics covered during the course.
Biologia - Cellula e Tessuti (2a edizione). Roberto Colombo e Ettore Olmo (Eds). Edi-ermes, Milano. ISBN 9788870514001